Basic Components of Robotics | Elements and Structure of a Robot

Robots are important in changing how we live and work. This article explains the main Components of robots like sensors and controllers. It talks about how robots work, the good things they do, and the problems they can cause. The article also says we need to work together and think about what is right to make sure robots help us in a good way.

What is a Robot?

A robot is a smart machine that can do things on its own or with help from people. Generally, It has sensors, parts that move (actuators), and a brain (control system). Robots can be like robot arms in factories, self-driving cars, or even robots that look like people. However, They help with different jobs and make things easier and safer.

Basic Components of a Robotic System

Robots usually have important parts like sensors, actuators, a brain (control system), and sometimes a special tool. In fact, It helps robots do things on their own or with a bit of help, like doing tasks without people controlling them all the time.

Here are some key components used in robotics


A robot’s arm is like a person’s arm, with parts that can bend and move. Therefore, This helps the robot do different jobs by reaching and changing positions. However, Just like our arms can bend and reach for things.

End effector:

The end of a robot’s arm called the end effector It is one of the most important components of robotics, like a robot’s hand and fingers. It helps the robot do things like grabbing, picking up stuff, or doing careful actions. So the robot can work with its surroundings.

Locomotion Device:

Humans use muscles to move their arms and hands, but robots use motors for their motion. Generally, Motors give robots the power to move, and there are different kinds like electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic motors.

The preference of motor type is based upon on the robot’s format and meant application.


A robot’s controller is like a human brain, telling it what to do. It has both hardware and software parts that help the robot do the jobs it’s given.

The controller tells the robot’s arm, hand, and other parts what to do, so the robot can do specific jobs.


The Sensors are major components of a robot, serving as its “sense organs.” Moreover, They offer facts and comments to the robot’s controller, permitting it to understand its environment. Sensors degree diverse portions which include position, velocity, force, torque, proximity, temperature, and more.

This sensory enter allows the robotic to make knowledgeable choices and adapt to converting situations even as executing tasks.

Also Read: Data Science and Robotics: How are They Interconnected with Each Other?

Working of Robot

A robot works by following instructions to move its parts and do tasks, like a computer controlled helper. However, It works with the help of:

  • Sensors:  Generally, Robots have special sensors like cameras and detectors to see and understand the world around them.
  • Data Processing: Therefore, The computer inside the robot looks at the information from its sensors to understand what’s happening around it.
  • Decision-Making: The robot’s computer uses the information it learned to decide how to move around and do things in its surroundings.
  • Actuators: Robots use different kinds of motors and arms to do physical actions, like moving and grabbing things, based on the decisions they make.
  • Feedback Loop: The robot can change what it’s doing right away by using information from its sensors.
  • Programming: Along with this,  Robots can be told what to do beforehand or learn and get better at their tasks using smart computer programs.
  • Power SourceMost robots need electricity to work, but some might use different things like water or air power.
  • End-EffectorIn big robots used in factories, the end-effector is like their tool or hand, and it helps them do things like grabbing, welding, or painting.
  • Connectivity: Lots of robots are connected to the Internet of Things (IoT), which means they can talk to other devices, share information, and be controlled from far away.

Advantages of Robot

Here are some of the advantages of robots in our life: 

  • High Accuracy and Precision: Robots are really good at doing exact tasks, so they’re great for jobs that need careful accuracy and can boost performance in robotics.
  • Efficiency in Repetitive Tasks: Robots can repeat tasks tirelessly without experiencing fatigue, preventing errors and improving efficiency in repetitive processes.
  • Handling Dangerous Tasks: Robots are good at risky jobs, keeping people safe by doing dangerous tasks and making workplaces safer with their abilities.
  • Continuous Operation Without Fatigue: Generally, Robots can work continuously without experiencing fatigue, ensuring smooth operations and maintaining high productivity.
  • Consistent Manufacturing Quality: Robots make sure things are made the same every time in factories, so everything works well and is dependable.

All in all, robots make a big difference by making things more exact, safe, and efficient in many different types of jobs.

Also Read: MIT’s Innovative Robotic Research: Teaching Machines to Handle Objects More Human-Like

Disadvantages of Robot

Some noticeable disadvantages of Robot in our daily life are as follows:

  • Buying and setting up robots can cost a lot of money.
  • However, You need to regularly maintain and sometimes stop operations for repairs with robots.
  • Skilled technicians are needed to operate and program robots.
  • Robots might find it difficult to perform tasks that need human-like flexibility and skill.
  • Generally, Using robots for automation can lead to human workers losing their jobs.
  • Moreover, It takes a lot of time to program robots for specific tasks.
  • Robots lack creativity and problem-solving skills beyond their programmed tasks.
  • Thus, Robots rely on a constant power source, making them susceptible to outages.

Applications of Robot

Robots have a wide range of applications across industries, including:

  • Manufacturing: Making things in factories using machines that work automatically.
  • Healthcare: Cutting people to fix problems, taking care of sick people, and finding new medicines.
  • Agriculture: Collecting, planting, and keeping an eye on crops to grow food.
  • Automotive: Joining metal pieces together, adding color, and making sure things are good quality.
  • Logistics: Storing goods, putting them in boxes, and sending them out to customers.
  • Construction: Building walls with bricks, pouring strong material, and tearing things down.

The talk focused on parts of Industrial robot Components. We recommend taking practice tests and reviewing past papers for SSC JE Mechanical. Consider joining AE/JE Mechanical Coaching for a better understanding of the subject.

Also Read: Most In-Demand Technological Skills for Future Jobs


Robots have parts like arms, hands, and sensors that help them sense, think, and do tasks accurately. They’re good for industries, but they can be expensive and affect jobs. We need to work together on research, training, and ethical design to make sure robots make things safer and more efficient for everyone.

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